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The relative effects of pretreatment with allyl alcohol and carbon tetrachloride on oxidative and glucuronide metabolism of lorazepam have been compared in the isolated perfused rat liver. Livers from rats pretreated for 24 hr with allyl alcohol (1.8 ml/kg, 1:50 solution, to induce pericentral hepatic necrosis), carbon tetrachloride (0.8 mg/kg in corn oil, to induce perivenular hepatic necrosis), or vehicle were perfused with 20% rat blood, 80% Krebs bicarbonate buffer at 20 ml/min. After 300 μg of lorazepam had been added to the reservoir, perfusate concentrations of lorazepam were measured in the perfusate at timed intervals. After 180 min, lorazepam and lorazepam glucuronide were measured in perfusate, bile, and liver homogenate. Allyl alcohol and carbon tetrachloride lowered lorazepam clearance by 47% and 77%, respectively. Recovery of lorzaepam glucuronide after 180 min was lowered by 35% by treatment with allyl alcohol and increased 73% by treatment with carbon tetrachloride. Glucuronide recovery permitted estimation of fractional glucuronide vs. nonglucuronide clearance. In control rats, glucuronide clearance accounted for 25% of total clearance. Allyl alcohol caused a 64% reduction in glucuronide clearance but only a 39% reduction in nonglucuronide clearance. In contrast, carbon tetrachloride caused a 60% reduction in glucuronide clearance but an 83% reduction in nonglucuronide clearance. The differences in ratios of the changes in glucuronide and nonglucuronide clearance provide further circumstantial evidence that is consistent with the hypothesis of predominant periportal localization of glucuronidation and pericentral localization of oxidative metabolism of lorazepam.
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Accepted: July 26, 1983
Received: January 7, 1983
☆This work is supported by NIH grants GM 31304 and AA00267 and by the Veteran's Administration.
© 1983 Published by Elsevier Inc.