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Beneficial effects of chronic administration of dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dogs with renal insufficiency

  • Scott A. Brown
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: Dr. Scott A. Brown, Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
    Affiliations
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and the Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

    Mark Morris Associates, Topeka, Kansas, USA
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  • Cathy A. Brown
    Affiliations
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and the Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

    Mark Morris Associates, Topeka, Kansas, USA
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  • Wayne A. Crowell
    Affiliations
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and the Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

    Mark Morris Associates, Topeka, Kansas, USA
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  • Jeanne A. Barsanti
    Affiliations
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and the Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

    Mark Morris Associates, Topeka, Kansas, USA
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  • Timothy Allen
    Affiliations
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and the Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

    Mark Morris Associates, Topeka, Kansas, USA
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  • Christopher Cowell
    Affiliations
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and the Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

    Mark Morris Associates, Topeka, Kansas, USA
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  • Delmar R. Finco
    Affiliations
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and the Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

    Mark Morris Associates, Topeka, Kansas, USA
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      Abstract

      Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) alters the course of experimental renal disease in rats. However, chronic renal disease in other laboratory animals and in human beings frequently responds differently to experimental manipulations. We investigated the effects of variations in dietary PUFA composition on the chronic course of induced renal disease in dogs. Two months after Math Eq nephrectomy, dogs were randomly divided into three groups of seven animals each. For the next 20 months, each group of dogs was fed a low-fat basal diet supplemented with one of three sources of lipid to achieve a final concentration of 15% added fat. Fat sources provided ω-3 PUFA (menhaden fish oil, group FO), ω-6 PUFA (safflower oil, group SO), or saturated fatty acids (beef tallow, group BT). Throughout the dietary trial, the magnitude of proteinuria and the plasma concentrations of creatinine, cholesterol, and triglyceride were lower in group FO. The mean overall glomerular filtration rate was 0.89 ± 0.18 ml/min per kilogram of body weight in group SO, a value that was significantly less (p < 0.05) than the corresponding values for groups BT and FO (1.21 ± 0.18 and 1.43 ± 0.20 ml/min/kg, respectively). Renal interstitial fibrosis also was significantly elevated in group SO. The extents of mesangial matrix expansion, glomerulosclerosis, and renal interstitial cellular infiltrate were similar in groups BT and SO, but lower (p < 0.05) in group FO. We conclude that supplementation with ω-6 PUFA enhanced renal injury; supplementation with ω-3 PUFA was renoprotective.

      Abbreviations:

      BT (Beef tallow), BUN (blood urea nitrogen), CCr (urinary clearance of exogenously administered creatinine), FO (menhaden fish oil), GFR (glomerular filtration rate), HDLcholesterol (cholesterol contained in high-density lipoprotein particles), PAS (periodic acidSchiff), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), SCr (serum creatinine concentration), SO (safflower oil)
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