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Sex difference in cardiometabolic risk profile and adiponectin expression in subjects with visceral fat obesity

  • Hongbo He
    Affiliations
    Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing, China
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  • Yinxing Ni
    Affiliations
    Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing, China
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  • Jing Chen
    Affiliations
    Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing, China
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  • Zhigang Zhao
    Affiliations
    Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing, China
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  • Jian Zhong
    Affiliations
    Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing, China
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  • Daoyan Liu
    Affiliations
    Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing, China
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  • Zhencheng Yan
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: Zhencheng Yan, MD, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, No. 10 Changjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 40042 PR China.
    Affiliations
    Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing, China
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  • Weiguo Zhang
    Affiliations
    Cardiovascular and Neurological Consulting, San Fernando, Irving, Tex
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  • Zhiming Zhu
    Affiliations
    Center for Hypertension and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Hypertension and Endocrinology, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing Institute of Hypertension, Chongqing, China
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Published:September 14, 2009DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2009.08.003
      This study investigates the sex difference of cardiometabolic risk profiles in subjects with visceral fat obesity (VFO) but normal waist circumference (WC). VFO, which is defined as visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area more than 100cm2 by computed tomography (CT), and cardiometabolic risk profiles were assessed in 437 subjects with normal WC (197 female subjects and 240 male subjects). The expression of adiponectin and its receptor in abdominal adipose tissue was measured in a subgroup of the subjects. Compared with the male subjects, female subjects had a larger abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) area (158±56 vs 116±38cm2, P<0.01), smaller VAT area (67±44 vs 78±33cm2; P<0.01), and lower prevalence of VFO (12.2 vs 24.2%, P<0.001). This finding was accompanied by upregulated expressions of adiponectin and its receptor in abdominal adipose tissue in female subjects. Without VFO, the risk profiles were not significantly different between male subjects and female subjects. Although risk factors were increased and intensified in both sexes in the presence of VFO, female subjects with VFO were associated with greater cardiometabolic risks than male subjects. A regression analysis indicates the ratio of VAT/SAT for female subjects, whereas VAT and age for male subjects were independently associated with clustering of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors. In conclusion, in subjects with normal WC, the prevalence of VFO is lower and the expression of adiponectin and its receptor is higher in female subjects compared with male subjects. Although VFO was associated with increased risk in both sexes, the risk profile in female subjects with VFO was more pronounced.

      Abbreviations:

      Adipo R1 (adiponectin receptor type 1), BMI (body mass index), CI (confidence interval), CT (computed tomography), DBP (diastolic blood pressure), HDL (high-density lipoprotein), HDL-c (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment index), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), mRNA (messenger RNA), OR (odds ratio), SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue), SBP (systolic blood pressure), VAT (visceral adipose tissue), VFO (visceral fat obesity), WC (waist circumference)
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