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Biomarkers: hopes and challenges in the path from discovery to clinical practice

  • Nikolaos G. Frangogiannis
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: Nikolaos G. Frangogiannis, MD, The Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Forchheimer G46B, Bronx, NY 10461.
    Affiliations
    Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine (Cardiology), Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY
    Search for articles by this author
Published:February 15, 2012DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2012.01.023
      Biomarkers are measurable indicators of normal or abnormal biological processes that may be used to screen for, or diagnose disease, monitor its activity, predict its course, or assess response to treatment.
      • Rifai N.
      • Gillette M.A.
      • Carr S.A.
      Protein biomarker discovery and validation: the long and uncertain path to clinical utility.
      Biomarkers definitions working group. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: preferred definitions and conceptual framework.
      A National Institutes of Health (NIH) working group defined a biomarker as a “characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention.”
      Biomarkers definitions working group. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: preferred definitions and conceptual framework.
      Although under this broad definition, physical traits, physiologic measurements, or quantitatable endpoints of imaging studies can be also considered biomarkers,
      • Vasan R.S.
      Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: molecular basis and practical considerations.
      nowadays the term most often refers to molecular or biochemical markers.
      • Rifai N.
      • Gillette M.A.
      • Carr S.A.
      Protein biomarker discovery and validation: the long and uncertain path to clinical utility.
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