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Biology of telomeres: importance in etiology of esophageal cancer and as therapeutic target

Published:October 03, 2013DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2013.09.003
      The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of telomeres, the mechanisms implicated in their maintenance, and their role in the etiology as well as the treatment of human esophageal cancer. We will also discuss the role of telomeres in the maintenance and preservation of genomic integrity, the consequences of telomere dysfunction, and the various factors that may affect telomere health in esophageal tissue predisposing it to oncogenesis. There has been growing evidence that telomeres, which can be affected by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, contribute to genomic instability, oncogenesis, as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Telomeres are the protective DNA-protein complexes at chromosome ends. Telomeric DNA undergoes progressive shortening with age leading to cellular senescence and/or apoptosis. If senescence/apoptosis is prevented as a consequence of specific genomic changes, continued proliferation leads to very short (ie, dysfunctional) telomeres that can potentially cause genomic instability, thus, increasing the risk for activation of telomere maintenance mechanisms and oncogenesis. Like many other cancers, esophageal cancer cells have short telomeres and elevated telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres in most cancer cells. Homologous recombination, which is implicated in the alternate pathway of telomere elongation, is also elevated in Barrett’s-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma. Evidence from our laboratory indicates that both telomerase and homologous recombination contribute to telomere maintenance, DNA repair, and the ongoing survival of esophageal cancer cells. This indicates that telomere maintenance mechanisms may potentially be targeted to make esophageal cancer cells static. The rate at which telomeres in healthy cells shorten is determined by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including those associated with lifestyle. Avoidance of factors that may directly or indirectly injure esophageal tissue including its telomeric and other genomic DNA can not only reduce the risk of development of esophageal cancer but may also have positive impact on overall health and lifespan.

      Abbreviations:

      HR (homologous recombination), BAC (Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma), ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres), DSB (DNA double strand breaks), ITRs (interspersed telomeric repeats), QFISH (quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization), hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase), hTR (RNA component of telomerase), LCM (laser capture microdissection)
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