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Neuroimaging in the modern era

Published:December 18, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2015.12.005
      Neuroimaging combines multiple imaging modalities that allow the visualization and study of the structure, function, pharmacology, and pathophysiology of the nervous system. Over the last several decades, this field has seen remarkable developments, with the work by Dandy
      • Dandy W.E.
      Roentgenography of the brain after the injection of air into the spinal canal.
      on ventriculography and pneumoencephalography in 1918 and 1919, the introduction of cerebral angiography in 1927 by Egas Moniz,
      • Ferro J.M.
      Egas Moniz and internal carotid occlusion.
      • Lowis G.W.
      • Minagar A.
      The neglected research of Egas Moniz of internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion.
      the introduction of computerized axial tomography by Cormack and Hounsfield in the early 1970s for which they won the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine,
      • Raju T.N.
      The Nobel chronicles. 1979: Allan MacLeod Cormack (b 1924); and Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield (b 1919).
      and around that same time the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by Mansfield and Lauterbur for which they won the 2003 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.
      • Slavkovsky P.
      • Uhliar R.
      The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2003 to Paul C. Lauterbur, Peter Mansfield for magnetic resonance imaging.
      After these groundbreaking discoveries, continued technological and software developments allowed for the advent of computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), functional MRI, and magnetoencephalography, among other techniques, further expanding the array of medical applications covered. Cerebrovascular disease and other disease entities such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's can now be studied noninvasively in-depth.
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