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Liquid biopsy approach in the management of prostate cancer

      Liquid biopsies examine tumor cells or tumor genomic content in circulating fluids. In advanced prostate cancer which metastasizes frequently to the bone, it is difficult to evaluate underlying and evolving genomic heterogeneity of skeletal metastases for effecting clinical care for which reason liquid biopsies offer an alternate approach. In this review, we will summarize the current state of a wide variety of liquid biopsy-based biomarker assays currently being investigated and developed for managing prostate cancer. We will also highlight technical and clinical challenges and opportunities for translating liquid biopsies into clinical applications.

      Abbreviations:

      ARSIs (androgen receptor signaling inhibitors), AA (abiraterone acetate), AR (androgen receptor), BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia), CNV (copy number variation), CRPC (castration resistant prostate cancer), CTC (circulating tumor cells), ctDNA (cell-free circulating tumor DNA), DNA (deoxyribo nucleic acid), DRE (digital rectal examination), E (enzalutamide), EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), LBD (ligand-binding domain), mCRPC (metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer), mRNAs (messenger ribonucleic acid), miRNAs (micro ribonucleicacid), NGS (next generation sequencing), NHT (novel hormonal therapy), PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase), PCa (prostate cancer), PSA (prostate specific antigen), qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction), RNA (ribonucleic acid), RAF (rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma)
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