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Liquid biopsies for hepatocellular carcinoma

  • Ying-Hsiu Su
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: Ying-Hsiu Su, The Baruch S. Blumberg Institute, 3805 Old Easton Road, Doylestown, PA 18902; Surbhi Jain, JBS Science, Inc., 3805 Old Easton Road, Doylestown, PA 18902.
    Affiliations
    The Baruch S. Blumberg Institute, Doylestown, Pennsylvania
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  • Amy K. Kim
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore Maryland
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  • Surbhi Jain
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: Ying-Hsiu Su, The Baruch S. Blumberg Institute, 3805 Old Easton Road, Doylestown, PA 18902; Surbhi Jain, JBS Science, Inc., 3805 Old Easton Road, Doylestown, PA 18902.
    Affiliations
    JBS Science, Inc., Doylestown, Pennsylvania
    Search for articles by this author
      Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the world's second leading cause of cancer death; 82.4% of patients die within 5 years. This grim prognosis is the consequence of a lack of effective early detection tools, limited treatment options, and the high frequency of HCC recurrence. Advances in the field of liquid biopsy hold great promise in improving early detection of HCC, advancing patient prognosis, and ultimately increasing the survival rate. In an effort to address the current challenges of HCC screening and management, several studies have identified and evaluated liver–cancer-associated molecular signatures such as genetic alterations, methylation, and noncoding RNA expression in the form of circulating biomarkers in body fluids and circulating tumor cells of HCC patients. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in HCC liquid biopsy, organized by the intended clinical application of the reported study.

      Abbreviations:

      AASLD (American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases), AFP (alfa-fetoprotein), CART (classification and regression trees), cfDNA (circulating cell-free DNA), CTC (circulating tumor cells), ctDNA (circulating cell-free tumor DNA), CTscan (computed tomography), EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), FS (fixed sequential), HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma), lncRNA (long noncoding RNA), LR (logistic regression), miRNA (microRNA), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction), qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction), RF (random forest), TACE (transcatheter arterial chemoembolization), TMB (tumor mutational burden), TS (two-step), USFDA (United states Food and Drug Administration)
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