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Liquid biopsies for management of pancreatic cancer

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Current address: School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, North Kargar St., Tehran 14395-515, Iran.
    Mohamadmahdi Samandari
    Footnotes
    1 Current address: School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, North Kargar St., Tehran 14395-515, Iran.
    Affiliations
    Cellular and Molecular Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
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  • María Gil Julia
    Affiliations
    Cellular and Molecular Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
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  • Alistair Rice
    Affiliations
    Cellular and Molecular Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
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  • Antonios Chronopoulos
    Affiliations
    Cellular and Molecular Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
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  • Armando E. del Rio Hernandez
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: Armando E. del Río Hernández, Cellular and Molecular Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
    Affiliations
    Cellular and Molecular Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Current address: School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, North Kargar St., Tehran 14395-515, Iran.

      Abstract

      Pancreatic cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. It is asymptomatic at an early stage, and most diagnosis occurs when the disease is already at a late stage, by which time the tumor is nonresectable. In order to increase the overall survival of patients with pancreatic cancer, as well as to decrease the cancer burden, it is necessary to perform early diagnosis, prognosis stratifications and cancer monitoring using accurate, minimally invasive, and cost-effective methods. Liquid biopsies seek to detect tumor-associated biomarkers in a variety of extractable body fluids and can help to monitor treatment response and disease progression, and even predict patient outcome. In patients with pancreatic cancer, tumor-derived materials, primarily circulating tumor DNA, circulating tumor cells and exosomes, are being studied for inclusion in the management of the disease. This review focuses on describing the biology of these biomarkers, methods for their enrichment and detection, as well as their potential for clinical application. Moreover, we discuss the future direction of liquid biopsies and introduce how they can be exploited toward point of care personalized medicine for the management of pancreatic cancer.

      Abbreviations:

      AUC (area under the curve), CA19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9), CAF (cancer associated fibroblast), CD (cluster of differentiation), CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), CEP8 (chromosome enumeration probe 8), cfDNA (cell free DNA), cfNA (cell-free nucleic acid), CK (cytokeratin), CTC (circulating tumor cell), ctDNA (circulating tumor DNA), CTM (circulating tumor microemboli), dPCR (digital PCR), ECM (extracellular matrix), EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), EMT (epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition), EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization), miRNA (microRNA), mRNA (messenger RNA), ncRNA (noncoding RNA), NGS (next generation sequencing), PCR (polymerase chain reaction), PDAC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma), PSC (pancreatic stellate cell), WGS (whole genome sequencing)
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