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Targeting neutrophil extracellular traps enhanced tPA fibrinolysis for experimental intracerebral hemorrhage

  • Qiang Tan
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China
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  • Peiwen Guo
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China
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  • Jiru Zhou
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China
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  • Jianbo Zhang
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China
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  • Bo Zhang
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China
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  • Chuan Lan
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China
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  • Jishu Xian
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China
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  • Miandi Ge
    Affiliations
    Transfusion Department, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China
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  • Hua Feng
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: Hua Feng; Zhi Chen Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China.
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China
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  • Zhi Chen
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests: Hua Feng; Zhi Chen Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China.
    Affiliations
    Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, PR China
    Search for articles by this author
Published:April 29, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2019.04.009
      The minimally invasive surgery plus fibrinolysis has been identified as a promising treatment for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the fibrinolytic efficacy is not satisfactory. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been demonstrated to impair fibrinolysis in sepsis and acute ischemic stroke. Therefore, we decided to explore the presence and potential effect of NETs in ICH fibrinolysis. Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced by autologous arterial blood injection into the basal ganglia in rats. First, at 0.5 hour, 1 hour, and 1.5 hours after blood injection, the brains were collected for NETs detection by immune-staining. Second, ICH rats were given intrahematoma fibrinolysis: rats were randomized to receive the equal amount of saline, DNAse 1, tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA), and tPA + DNAse 1 at 1 hour after hematoma placement. On day 3, animals were sacrificed for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP Nick-end labeling staining following MRI and behavioral tests. Third, on day 3 after ICH, the hematoma within brain were collected for ex vivo fibrinolysis assay to further evaluate the effect of NETs in ICH fibrinolysis. Co-staining of DAPI, H3, and MPO confirmed the presence of NETs in ICH. Disintegration of NETs using DNAse 1 enhanced tPA-induced hematoma fibrinolysis, relieved brain swelling, reduced cell death, and improved the functional outcome in ICH rats. Therefore, we concluded that NETs impaired the efficacy of tPA for ICH fibrinolysis in rats. Targeting NETs may be a new alternative to improve the fibrinolytic therapy following ICH.

      Abbreviations:

      DNase 1 (deoxyribonuclease 1), ICH (intracerebral hemorrhage), MPO (myeloperoxidase), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps), tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator), TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling)
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