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Adult hypertensive rats are more prone to gut microflora perturbation and fibrosis in response to moderate restraint stress

Published:December 21, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2022.10.006

      ABSTRACT

      Hypertension (HTN) is a common endpoint for numerous cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence of which has been quickly increasing due to a wide range of reasons. Previous research has found that following stress, ELISA and 16S rDNA sequencing indicated substantial changes in plasma cytokines or hormones, as well as alterations in gut microbiota in juvenile hypertensive rats. However, it remains still unclear how such interaction modifications affect microbial populations and organismal function. Stress-related hormones show a significant drop. Similar to earlier research, the stress group had dramatically increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17. Importantly, a unified collection of tools that allows for deep and comprehensive colonic structural investigation has been developed. Stress may limit the transition of macrophages (Mφs) to M1Mφs while increasing the transfer to M2Mφs. Evidence highlighted that tight junction proteins were decreased along with enhancement in intestinal permeability. Morphological analysis revealed that the SHR-S group exhibited considerably higher levels of morphological alterations and fibrosis in colon, heart, and thoracic aorta tissues.Significant improvements in bacteria linked with short-chain fatty acid synthesis, such as Prevotella and Ruminococcus, were discovered by metagenomic analysis. Adult hypertensive rats are more susceptible to gut microbiota disruption and fibrosis as a result of mild restraint stress. This might contribute to some innovative ideas for HTN both treatment and prevention.

      Abbreviations:

      ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), AFM (atomic force microscopy), Ang II (angiotensin II), α-SMA (α-smooth muscle actin), BP (blood pressure), Col 1 (collagen 1), CORT (corticosterone), ECM (extracellular matrix), FD-4 (4-kDa FITC-dextran), FGF-2 (fibroblast growth factor), GI (gastrointestinal), HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal), HTN (hypertension), HTS (high-throughput sequencing), HRP (horseradish peroxidase), KO (KEGG Orthology), IBD (inflammatory bowel disease), IL-6 (interleukin-6), IPP (Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software), LOD (limit of detection), LOWESS (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing), MAP (mean arterial pressure), (macrophage), MCP (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), MMP (Matrix metalloproteinase), NE (Norepinephrine), OTUs (Operational taxonomic units), PCoA (principal coordinates analysis), PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), SBP (systolic blood pressure), SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats), SNS (sympathetic nervous system), T2D (type 2 diabetes), TEM (Transmission electron microscopy), TJ (tight junctions), TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1), TMB (3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α), TTX (tetrodotoxin), Indo (indomethacin), WKY (Wistar Kyoto rats)
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