Abbreviation:cf-NA (cell-free DNAs/RNAs), cfs-NA (cell-free seminal DNAs/RNAs), NOA (non-obstructive azoospermia), SCOS (sertoli-cell syndrome), MA (maturation arrest), HO (hypospermatogenesis), SMV (seminal microvesicles), SE (seminal exosome), MF (microfilter), UF (ultrafilter)
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Funding: This work was supported by National Natural Fund Youth Project (82001621), National Key Research and Development Program of China (2022YFC2702700), Guangxi Science and Technology Base and Talents Special Project (2021AC19397), and Scientific Research Project of Wuhan Municipal Health Commission (WX21B05).